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The Silver Element

  • The Silver Element

    THE SILVER ELEMENT - All you need to know about Silver






    Symbol: Ag

    Atomic number: 47

    Group number: 11

    Mass: 107.868

    Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3


    Atomic volume: 10.3 cm3/mol

    Melting Point: 961.93 C (1235.1 K)

    Boiling Point: 2212 C (2428 K)

    Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol

    Heat of vaporization: 250.580 kJ/mol

    Number of Protons/Electrons: 47

    Number of neutrons: 61

    Classification: Transition Metal

    Crystal Structure: Face-centered Cubic

    Colour: silver

    Hardness: 3.25 mohs

    Characteristics: soft, ductile, tarnishes


    Structure of atom:

    Number of shells: 5

    Atom arrangement:

    1. first shell – 2

    2. second shell – 8

    3. third shell – 18

    4. fourth shell – 18

    5. fifth shell – 1



    Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1

    Minimum oxidation number: 0

    Maximum oxidation number: 3

    Minimum oxidation state: 0 (silver occurs naturally in ores in its elemental state)

    Maximum oxidation state: 3 (the unit cell of silver oxide, Ag4O4, has two atoms of univalent silver and two atoms of trivalent silver)


    Half Lives:

    Isotope            Half Live

    Ag105            41.3 days

    Ag105m            7.2 minutes

    Ag106m            8.4 days

    Ag107            stable

    Ag108            2.4 minutes

    Ag108m            130 years

    Ag109            stable

    Ag109m            39.8 seconds

    Ag110            24.6 seconds

    Ag110m            249.8 days

    Ag111            7.47 days



    1st ionization energy: 731 kJ/mole

    Electronegativity: 1.93

    2nd ionization energy: 2073.5 kJ/mole

    Electron affinity: 125.6 kJ/mole

    3rd ionization energy: 3360.6 kJ/mole

    Specific heat: 0.235 J/gK

    Heat atomization: 284 kJ/mole atoms



    With air: mild, =>Ag2O

    With 6M HCl: none

    With 6M HCl: none

    With 15M HNO3: mild, =>AgNO3

    Other Forms:

    number of isotopes: 2

    hydride(s): none

    oxide(s): Ag2O

    chloride(s): AgCl



    ionic radius (2- ion): pm

    ionic radius (1- ion): pm

    atomic radius: 144 pm

    ionic radius (1+ ion): 129 pm

    ionic radius (2+ ion): 108 pm

    ionic radius (3+ ion): 89 pm



    Thermal conductivity: 429 J/m-sec-degC

    Electrical conductivity: 630.5 1/mohm-cm

    Electrical resistivity: 1.467 X 10-8 ohms-m (OoC)

    Polarizability: 7.9 A^3



    Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other sulfides and tellurides.

    Relative abundance in solar system: -0.313 log

    Abundance earth’s crust: -1.2 log



    English: Silver

    French: Argent

    German: Silber

    Italian: Argento

    Latin: Argentum

    Spanish: Plata





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