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The Silver Element

THE SILVER ELEMENT - All you need to know about Silver

 

 

 

 

 

Symbol: Ag

Atomic number: 47

Group number: 11

Mass: 107.868

Density @ 293 K: 10.5 g/cm3

 

Atomic volume: 10.3 cm3/mol

Melting Point: 961.93 C (1235.1 K)

Boiling Point: 2212 C (2428 K)

Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol

Heat of vaporization: 250.580 kJ/mol

Number of Protons/Electrons: 47

Number of neutrons: 61

Classification: Transition Metal

Crystal Structure: Face-centered Cubic

Colour: silver

Hardness: 3.25 mohs

Characteristics: soft, ductile, tarnishes

 

Structure of atom:

Number of shells: 5

Atom arrangement:

1. first shell – 2

2. second shell – 8

3. third shell – 18

4. fourth shell – 18

5. fifth shell – 1

 

Oxidation:

Electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s1

Minimum oxidation number: 0

Maximum oxidation number: 3

Minimum oxidation state: 0 (silver occurs naturally in ores in its elemental state)

Maximum oxidation state: 3 (the unit cell of silver oxide, Ag4O4, has two atoms of univalent silver and two atoms of trivalent silver)

 

Half Lives:

Isotope            Half Live

Ag105            41.3 days

Ag105m            7.2 minutes

Ag106m            8.4 days

Ag107            stable

Ag108            2.4 minutes

Ag108m            130 years

Ag109            stable

Ag109m            39.8 seconds

Ag110            24.6 seconds

Ag110m            249.8 days

Ag111            7.47 days

 

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 731 kJ/mole

Electronegativity: 1.93

2nd ionization energy: 2073.5 kJ/mole

Electron affinity: 125.6 kJ/mole

3rd ionization energy: 3360.6 kJ/mole

Specific heat: 0.235 J/gK

Heat atomization: 284 kJ/mole atoms

 

Reactions:

With air: mild, =>Ag2O

With 6M HCl: none

With 6M HCl: none

With 15M HNO3: mild, =>AgNO3

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2

hydride(s): none

oxide(s): Ag2O

chloride(s): AgCl

 

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm

ionic radius (1- ion): pm

atomic radius: 144 pm

ionic radius (1+ ion): 129 pm

ionic radius (2+ ion): 108 pm

ionic radius (3+ ion): 89 pm

 

Conductivity:

Thermal conductivity: 429 J/m-sec-degC

Electrical conductivity: 630.5 1/mohm-cm

Electrical resistivity: 1.467 X 10-8 ohms-m (OoC)

Polarizability: 7.9 A^3

 

Abundance:

Silver occurs in the metallic state, commonly associated with gold, copper, lead, and zinc. It is also found in some 60 minerals including: argentite (a sulfide), cerargyrite (a chloride), many other sulfides and tellurides.

Relative abundance in solar system: -0.313 log

Abundance earth’s crust: -1.2 log

 

Names:

English: Silver

French: Argent

German: Silber

Italian: Argento

Latin: Argentum

Spanish: Plata